Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) - Dyspraxia

Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), also known as dyspraxia, is a common disorder affecting fine and/or gross motor coordination in children and adults. DCD is formally recognised by international organisations including the World Health Organisation. DCD is distinct from other motor disorders such as cerebral palsy and stroke, and occurs across the range of intellectual abilities. Individuals may vary in how their difficulties present: these may change over time depending on environmental demands and life experiences, and will persist into adulthood.

An individual’s coordination difficulties may affect participation and functioning of everyday life skills in education, work and employment. Children may present with difficulties with self-care, writing, typing, riding a bike and play as well as other educational and recreational activities. In adulthood many of these difficulties will continue, as well as learning new skills at home, in education and work, such as driving a car and DIY. There may be a range of co-occurring difficulties which can also have serious negative impacts on daily life. These include social and emotional difficulties as well as problems with time management, planning and personal organisation, and these may also affect an adult’s education or employment experiences.

Take a look at Movement Matters Uk:
Movement Matters Uk

The Dyspraxia Foundation adds to the Movement Matters description, recognising the many non-motor difficulties that may also be experienced by people with the condition and which can have a significant impact on daily life activities. These include memory, perception and processing as well as additional problems with planning, organising and carrying out movements in the right order in everyday situations. Although dyspraxia may occur in isolation, it frequently coexists with other conditions such as Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, language disorders and social, emotional and behavioural impairments.

The Dyspraxia Foundation also provides support to people affected by verbal dyspraxia (also known as ‘childhood apraxia of speech’) which can occur alongside motor coordination difficulties, or as a separate condition. A

What causes Dyspraxia?

For the majority of those with the condition, there is no known cause. Current research suggests that it is due to an immaturity of neurone development in the brain rather than to brain damage. People with dyspraxia have no clinical neurological abnormality to explain their condition.

How would I recognise a child with Dyspraxia?


The pre-school child
Is late in reaching milestones e.g. rolling over, sitting, standing, walking, and speaking
May not be able to run, hop, jump, or catch or kick a ball although their peers can do so
Has difficulty in keeping friends; or judging how to behave in company
Has little understanding of concepts such as ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘in front of’ etc
Has difficulty in walking up and down stairs
Poor at dressing
Slow and hesitant in most actions
Appears not to be able to learn anything instinctively but must be taught skills
Falls over frequently
Poor pencil grip
Cannot do jigsaws or shape sorting games
Artwork is very immature
Often anxious and easily distracted

The school age child
Probably has all the difficulties experienced by the pre-school child with dyspraxia, with little or no improvement
Avoids PE and games
Doesn't perform well in class but significantly better on a one-to -one basis
Reacts to all stimuli without discrimination and attention span is poor
May have trouble with maths and writing structured stories
Experiences great difficulty in copying
Writes laboriously and immaturely
Unable to remember and /or follow instructions
Is generally poorly organised

Take a look at the Dyspraxia Foundation website for further information:
Dyspraxia Foundation: